The Prose Edda
Finnur Jónsson (Ed.) -
Edda Snorra Sturlusonar (1931)
Prose Edda (Brodeur Translation) audiobook MP3 (ZIP)
B. Anderson (Ed.) - The Elder Eddas of Saemund Sigfusson
and the Younger Eddas of Snorre Sturleson (1906)
Rasmus B. Anderson - Norse
Mythology - The Religion of our Forefathers (1879)
B. Anderson - The Younger Edda (1880)
Kip Baker - Stories from Northern Myths (1914)
Baldwin - The Story of Siegfried (1899)
Adams Bellows - The Poetic Edda (1923)
Boult - Asgard and the Norse Heroes (1926)
Boult - Heroes of the Norselands (1903)
Brandish - Old Norse Stories (1900)
Brown - In the Days of Giants; a Book of Norse Tales
W. Buel (red) - The Norse Discovery of America (1906)
Mary Wilmot-Buxton - Stories of Norse Heroes from the
Eddas and Sagas (1909)
Library of Pittsburgh - Story telling from Norse
Mythology and the Nibelungenlied (1903)
Colum - The Children of Odin (1920) (html) (pdf)
William Cox - Tales of the Teutonic Lands (1872)
A. Craigie - The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia
Mortensen and A. Clinton Crowell - A Handbook of Norse
Ewald - The Death of Balder (1889)
P. Fors -The Ethical World-Conception of the Norse
Foster and Mabel Cummings - Asgard Stories: tales from
Norse Mythology (1901)
Goddard - Wonderful Stories from Nothern Lands (1871)
Grimm - Teutonic Mythology Vol. 1 / Vol.
2 / Vol.
3 / Vol.
Adeline Guerber - The Legends of the Rhine (1895)
Adeline Guerber - The Myths of the Norsemen (1909)
Adeline Guerber - Myths of Northern Lands (1895)
Harold Herford - Norse Myth in English Poetry (1919)
Hulst - Balder's Death and Loke's Punishment (1918)
Clinton Jones - The Myths of Norseland (1880)
Keary and Eliza Keary - The Heroes of Asgard (1909)
Keyser - The Religion of the Northmen (1854)
Klingensmith - Stories of Norse Gods and Heroes (1894)
Elizabeth Litchfield - The Nine Worlds - Stories from
Norse Mythology (1897)
W. Macdowall - Asgard and the Gods (1917)
Wright Maybie - Norse Stories (1902)
Wright Maybie - Norse Stories Retold (1908)
Magnusson and William Morris (transl.) - Gunnlaug the
Worm-Tongue and Raven the Skald (1999)
Andreas Mortensen - A Handbook of Norse Mythology
Andreas Munch - Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and
Alexander Stuart Murray -
Manual of Mythology: Greek and Roman, Norse and Old
German, Hindoo and Egyptian Mythology (1885)
Pigott - A Manual of Scandinavian Mythology - The
Religion of Odin (1839)
Rydberg - Teutonic Gods Vol. 1 / Vol.
2 / Vol.
Chantepie de la Saussaye -
The Religion of the Teutons (1902)
Thorpe - Northern Mythology Vol. 1 / Vol.
2 / Vol.
Benjamin Thorpe - The
Poetic Edda (1866)
Other relevant texts
Tacitus, "The Agricola and Germania"
"Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica"
The runes is the oldest writing system known from Scandinavia.
According to Hĺvamĺl
(138-145), the runes were revealed to Odin himself while he
was hanging in the world tree Yggdrasil for nine
days and nights, pierced by his own spear. Knowledge of the
runes were called reginkunnr - knowledge of gods -
because the runes originated from Odin.
Heimdal introduced the
runes to man. In Rigsthula,
Heimdal, calling himself Rig, had the sons Trell (ancestor of
the thralls), Karl (ancestor of the free farmers) og Jarl
(ancestor of the aristocracy) with three different women, thus
creating the social stratification. When Jarl became an adult,
Rig returned and taught Jarl the runes.
The oldest preserved runic inscription is from a comb found in
Denmark, approximately from 150 A.D. It is assumed that the
runes originated in southern Scandinavia, since all the oldest
inscriptions are found in this area. The fact that the first
runic writing system was well adapted to the Old Scandinavian
language, supports this assumption. The influence from other
writing systems is evident, so the originator(s) must have had
good knowledge of classical alphabets. The latter is not
surprising, considering that there were trade networks from
Scandinavia to the Mediterranean since the Bronze Age. Since
long distance trade required a level of organization and
resources unavailable for ordinary people, it was probably
under the leadership of local chieftains. Thus, knowledge of
the runes probably originated from the upper echelons of
society, also as indicated in Rigsthula.
The oldest runic inscriptions are written in Elder Futhark,
a writing system consisting of 24 runes.
In addition to Scandinavia, runes was also used by Goths near
the Black Sea, where some runes were used in the Gothic
alphabet. Runes were also used by Franks, Burgundians,
Lombards, Thyringians, Alemannis, Frisians, Angles and Saxons.
The runic writing system of the Viking Age (from about 800
A.D.) is called Younger Futhark, and consisted of only
sixteen runes. This was not sufficient to represent all the
phonemes of Old Norse. Many runes therefore had to serve more
than one purpose. The writing system was called Futhark after
the first six runes, and is arranged in three ćttir
(families). Why the runes were ordered in this manner, remains
Younger Futhark existed in two main variants, namely the
long-branch (normal or Danish runes), and the short-twig runes
(Swedo-Norwegian runes). A third, and less used variant, was
called staveless (Swedish or Hälsinge runes).
The three Viking age variants with transliteration and
(Williams 2012: 282-283.)
Runic font 1
Runic font 2
Heyerdahl, G. H. (2017). Runer. Store Norske Leksikon.
Retrieved March 31., 2018 from https://snl.no/runer
Internet Sacred Text Archive. (Undated.)
The Poetic Edda. Retrieved March 15., 2018 from
Internet Sacred Text Archive. (2001.) The
Prose Edda. Retrieved March 15., 2018 from
Larsson, P. (2002). Yrrunan. Använding och ljudvärde i nordiska runinskrifter.
(Runrön 4), Swedish Science Press, Uppsala.
Melheim, L. (2015). Europeisk handel.
Retrieved March 31., 2018 from
Skogstrand, L. (2015). Runene: det fřrste
skriftsprĺket. Retrieved March 31., 2018 from
Williams, H. (2012). Runes. In: Brink, S. and Price, N. (ed.):
The Viking World. Routeledge, London og New York, p.
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